Wednesday, April 7, 2010

Sultanate of Samudera Pasai

1. History

When the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai unclear precisely and are controversial historians. However, there is a belief that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai stand earlier than the Ottoman dynasty in Turkey who have become one of the civilizations of the world's superpower. If the Ottoman Empire began to stick the power in the years around 1385 AD, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai already spread its influence in Southeast Asia region since 1297 AD.

A number of historians and researchers from Europe during the colonial occupation of the Dutch East Indies had made several inquiries to uncover the origins of the existence of one of the greatest empire on earth Aceh. Some scholars and researchers from the Netherlands, including Snouck Hurgronje, JP Moquette, JL Moens, J. Hushoff Poll, GP Rouffaer, HKJ Cowan, and others, agree on estimates that the new Pasai Ocean Sultanate stood at mid-13th century as well as placing the name of Sultan Malik al-Salih as its founder (Rusdi Sufi & Agus Budi Wibowo, 2006:50). Malik al-Salih own name is called and the different spellings, such as Malik Ul Salih, Malik Al Saleh, Malikussaleh, Malik al-Salih, or Malik Ul Salih.

a. Ocean Origins Naming Pasai

Pasai Ocean sultanate's full name is "Aca Pasai Ocean," which means "Ocean of good kingdom with its capital at Pasai" (HM Zainuddin, 1961:116). Center of the royal government is now no longer exists but its location is estimated to be around the country Blang Malays. The name "Ocean" that is used as the name of the island which is now referred to as Sumatra, as it is called by the Portuguese. Previously, the region's name is Believe Island.

While the travelers coming from China / Chinese call it by name "Chincou", which means "Island of Gold", such as is known based on the writings I'tsing. Kertanegara King, leader of the famous Royal Singasari, called this area with a Suwarnabhumi, which apparently means the same as what is called by the people of China, the "Island of Gold".

Sultanate of Samudera Pasai an Islamic kingdom located on the coast of northern Sumatra, more or less around the town of Lhokseumawe, North Aceh now. Written records that had been believed by historians to trace the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Malays are the three books of the historiography of the Hikayat Raja Pasai, History Melayu and Hikayat Raja Bakoy .Hikayat Raja Pasai give a big influence in efforts to uncover a history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, although the nuances myth is still a constraint in interpreting the truth.

Location of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai

Regarding the name "Ocean" and "Pasai", appeared a number of opinions that try to unravel the origins of the use of two names. One of them is as proposed by European scholars, JL Moens, who mentions that the word "Pasai" comes from the term "Parsi". According to Moens, the merchants who came from the Persian word "Pasai" with the pronunciation of "Pa'Se". Moens analysis, this could be applicable, with a note that since the 7th century AD the merchants who came from Persia has arrived and stopped in an area that later became home to the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (MD Mansoer, 1963:59).

Opinion Moens received support from some quarters, including Prof. Gabriel Ferrand, through his work entitled L'Empire (1922), also in the book The Golden Khersonese (1961) written by prof. Paul Wheatley. Both works were the data-data rely on information from the Middle East travelers who travel to the Southeast Asian region. Both Gabriel and Paul Wheatley Ferrand alike agree that since the 7 th century AD, major ports in Southeast Asia, including in the area of the Strait of Malacca, has been frequently visited by the traveler and the merchants who came from West Asia. Mentioned also that on each such trading cities there have been foundations or settlements of the Islamic traders who stopped and stayed there.

H. Mohammad Said, a journalist and a writer who dedicated his life to researching and publishing books Happenings Aceh, including the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai and the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam, tend to conclude that the origins of naming "Pasai" comes from the Chinese traders. According to Said, the term " Po Se " which is popular in the mid-8th century AD, such as those found in the notes and trip reports from the Chinese traveler, identical and very similar to the mention of the word "Pase" or "Pasai" (Said, 1963:2004-205).

There are also opinions that say that the name "Pasai" comes from the word "tapasai", which means "edge of the sea". The word "tapa" is still mostly found in the Polynesian languages meaning "edge". The word "sai" can be interpreted as a "sea", which is also included in the vocabulary of the Malayo-Polynesian, or Archipelago. The word "Pasai" is a synonym of the word "beach". Similarly, the word "ocean" which also means "not far from the sea." So, both "Ocean" or "Pasai" containing roughly the same meaning, namely "state located on the shores of the sea" (Slamet Muljana, 2005:136).

Name Ocean and Pasai often mentioned in various sources have been found, both originating from outside sources and local sources. The sources from outside the country that often mentioned the existence of the region named Ocean and Pasai include travel reports or records of travelers from China, Arabia, India, and Europe, which had dropped by Pasai Ocean region. Travel records as well as they were written by Marco Polo, Odorico, Ibn Batuta, Tome Pires, as well as news from China. Meanwhile, sources from within the country such as the one contained in the book of the State Kertagama Prapanca mpu works written in the past century -13 until the 14th century AD.

Ibn Batuta, a Muslim traveler of the Maghribi, Morocco, for example, in his notes that he had visited in 1345 M. Pasai Ibn Batuta, who stopped in Pasai for 15 days, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai describes as "a green country with a large port city and the beautiful.''Ibn Batuta tells, when it arrived in China, he saw the ship Sultan Pasai in the country. Indeed, Chinese sources have said that envoys Pasai routinely come to China to submit a tribute.

Note on the Mongol Dynasty in China shows several kingdoms in Sumatra, including the Royal Ocean / Pasai, have time to build the relationship with the Mongol Empire under the command Kubhilai Khan. Ocean Kingdom / Pasai began a relationship with the Mongol Dynasty in 1282. Ocean Kingdom / Pasai relationships with large empires in Asia through Chinese delegation returned from South India and stopped at Pasai Ocean. This event is regarded as the beginning of contact between the Ocean Pasai with Chinese / Mongolian (Muhammad Gade Ismail, 1997:23).

Mausoleum of the First Emperor boards Pasai Ocean

Other information also mentions that the Sultan had sent representatives Pasai Ocean to Quilon, West Indies, in 1282 AD This proves that the Sultanate Pasai has extensive relationships with other kingdoms abroad. In addition, in a note titled journeyTuhfat Al-Nazha , Ibn Batuta tells us, at that time have transformed Pasai as Islamic studies center in Southeast Asia.

Recorder of Portuguese origin who had settled in Malacca in the period 1512-1515, Tomi Pires, mentions that Pasai is the most important city in his time for the whole of Sumatra, because there is no other place importance on the island except Pasai. Name the city by some people called the Ocean and then attached to the name of Pasai Ocean and became a symbol to refer to the island of Sumatra. Pasai city, according to records Tomi Pires, an estimated population of not less than 20,000 people (Ismail, 1997:37).

Marco Polo reported that in 1267 AD has stood the first Islamic kingdom in the archipelago, which is none other than the Sultanate Pasai. Marco Polo visited during the reign of Pasai Sultan Malik al-Salih, precisely the year 1292 AD, when the kingdom has not been long standing but already showing potential for prosperity. Marco Polo dropped Pasai Ocean in a series of travels from China to Persia. At that time, Marco Polo took part in the group from Italy who visited Sumatra, after attending an invitation from Kublai Khan, the King of the Mongols, who also mastered the territory of China. Marco Polo mentions, in Pasai population at that time still a lot that has not embraced the religion (Islam), but the community of Arabs, called by the name of Marco Saraceen - had enough and was instrumental in the effort to convert the population of Aceh. Marco Polo called it disinggahinya area under the name "Giava Minor" or "Java Minor" (Mohammad H. Said, 1963:82-83).

Apart from written sources and records the journey of the traveler, other information can at least help a little in the unfolding history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai obtained from the remnants of the abandoned civilization, like ancient tombs made of stone or marble and granite-currency named Deureuham or Dirham found in Sub-Ocean, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. When the death of Sultan Malik Al Salih, the founder of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, itself can be known from the print on a gravestone found in Blang Me, ie the year 697 Hijri or 1297 AD coincided with the years. Meanwhile, when Malik Al-Salih was born has not found a clearer explanation.

Applicable Currency Pasai Ocean

Sources about the origin of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai version of Western scholars who formulated the era of the Dutch East Indies colonial administration was different from what is believed to be leaders of national historians and scholars in the period after Indonesia's independence. In the "National History Seminar" held in Medan, North Sumatra, on 17-20 March 1963, and in a seminar on "Sign and rise of Islam in Aceh Special Region", held on 10-16 July 1978 in Banda Aceh, which among other attended by Prof. Hamka, Prof. A. Hasjmy, Prof. H. Fuel Aboe Atjeh, H. Mohammad Said, and MD Mansoer, has been put forward different perspectives in an effort to probe the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai history.

Based on a number of directions and sources of a newer, among other particulars of Arab travelers on Southeast Asia as well as two local manuscripts found in Aceh ie "Idhahul Fi Mamlakatil Peureula Rights" written by Abu Ishaq al Makarany and "chronicles the Kings Kingdom of Aceh ", the experts concluded that the national history of the Islamic kingdom of Samudera Pasai been standing since the 11th century, or rather the year 433 Hijri calendar alias in the year 1042 AD (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:52).

Regarding the location of the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, has taken the efforts of research and investigation, one of the excavation efforts undertaken by the Archaeological Service Department for Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia. From the efforts of this investigation is known that the location of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai located in an area called Pasai, namely now in the area of North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province.

According to GP Rouffaer, one Dutch scholar who seriously investigate the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, said that the location Pasai initially located on the right side Pasai River, while the Ocean is located on the left side of river. However, over time, both places are collected into one place and then made the establishment of an empire, namely the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (T. Ibrahim Alfian, 1973:21).

b. Ocean, Pasai, and Influence of Egypt

There are different opinions that define and interpret about the origins of the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. One is the notion that Pasai Ocean Empire is a continuation of the history of pre-Islamic kingdoms had existed previously. In a book entitled "The collapse of the Hindu-Javanese kingdom and the emergence of Islamic countries in the Archipelago", Slamet Muljana wrote that Nazimuddin Al Kamil, Admiral of the Sea Fathimiah Dynasty in Egypt, managed to conquer the kingdom of Hindu / Buddhist contained in Aceh and overran the area known fertile Pasai. Nazimuddin Al-Kamil later founded a kingdom at the mouth of the River Pasai it in 1128 AD by the name of the Kingdom of Pasai. Reason Fathimiah dynasty founded in Pasai government based on a desire to dominate trade in the eastern coast of Sumatra, which was very crowded.

To smooth the ambition that, Dynasty Fathimiah deploy a fleet of war captured by Kambayat city in Gujarat, opening a port city in Pasai, and attacked the pepper-producing areas of Kampar Kanan and Kampar Kiri in Minangkabau. In a military expedition to seize the Minangkabau region, Nazimuddin Al-Kamil died and his body was buried in Bangkinang, on the banks of Sungai Kampar Kanan in 1128 was also (Muljana, 2005:133). In 1168, Fathimiah Dynasty, which was founded in 976 AD, Salahuddin was defeated by the army that embraces the Shafi'i madhhab. With the collapse of the dynasty Fathimiah, the relationship with Egypt Pasai automatically disconnected.

The same source mentioned that Al-Kamil Nazimuddin successor as ruler of the Kingdom of Ocean was Admiral Kafrawi Al-Kamil, but in 1204 AD Pasai power fell into the hands of Royal Admiral Johan We Jani from Island. Under the control of Admiral Johan Jani which is a hybrid between India and Persia, the Kingdom of Pasai growing stronger and had transformed into the most powerful maritime nation in the Nusantara (Muljana, 2005:114).

In Egypt, there was a new dynasty to replace Fathimiah Dynasty. The new dynasty was Mamaluk Dynasty who lived within the period from year 1285 until 1522. Like its predecessor, Mamaluk Dynasty also wanted to control trade in Pasai. In the years since its inception, Dynasty sent an envoy to Pasai Mamaluk, ie, a preacher of the old study of Islam in the holy land of Mecca named Shaykh Muhammad Ismail and the Poor, a former cleric from the West Coast of India.

In Pasai, the two envoys met with Marah Silu who was then a member of the Royal army Pasai. Shaykh Muhammad Ismail and Poor Marah Silu persuaded to embrace Islam. Furthermore, with the help of Mamaluk Dynasty in Egypt, they founded the kingdom of Samudera Pasai rivals to the kingdom. Marah Silu ditabalkan became Emperor Royal Ocean. Both the Ocean and the Royal Kingdom of Pasai, both located at the mouth of the River Pasai and facing the Straits of Malacca.

c. Ocean History Pasai in Hikayat

Another version of the history of emerged and the development of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai obtained from a number which tells the saga of this royal existence, especially in the Hikayat Raja Pasai. According to the narration contained in the Hikayat Raja Pasai, kingdom, led by Sultan Malik al-Salih was first named the Kingdom of Ocean. The Kingdom of Pasai is a new government that followed later and accompany the existence of the Kingdom of Ocean. The origin of the name of both kingdoms there are stories that lie behind them.

In Hikayat Raja Pasai narrated, the emergence of a Royal Ocean started when Marah Silu was walking with her beloved dog named Pasai. When they arrived at a high ground, Marah Silu's dog suddenly barking loudly because it met with a large red ants. Marah Silu later captured by the giant ants and then eat it. From here arises inspiration for naming the new kingdom founded by a Royal Ocean which in his native language could be interpreted as a "big red ants."

Copies page First Hikayat Raja Pasai

While the origin of the Kingdom of Pasai, saga the same note, one day, Marah Silu who was then already the title of Sultan Malik al-Salih after leading the Royal Ocean, along with his bodyguards were engaged in hunting where dogs are named Pasai sultan was also participate . Occurred a strange incident when Pasai released into the forest and met with a Lemur, two different animal species were conversing with each other intimately. When Sultan Malik Al Salih want to catch it, it ran into the arms of Lemur dog named Sultan Pasai it. In amazement, Sultan Malik Al Salih later minded to build a country in that place.

After the country's standing, by Sultan Malik al-Salih Pasai named, like a pet dog that inspired the construction of the new country. The dog was alone and then die in the new country. As the representative of Sultan Malik al-Salih remained seated in the Royal Ocean, then dititahkanlah son named Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul to lead the Kingdom Pasai (Russell Jones [ed.], 1999:23).

Although quite a lot of researchers who rely Hikayat Raja Pasai as a base source of information for uncovering the history and origin of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, but not a few who doubt its truth. This is because the saga is not a series of purely historical record, but many are disisipi with the stories that do not necessarily true, not even those stories often be difficult to accept the logic of myth, as the royal government of legitimacy that existed at the time it.

Doubts about the truth contained in the Hikayat Raja Pasai include AD as proposed by Hill, who claimed that the text Pasai Hikayat Raja turns out only a third of the initial course. Similarly, Teuku Ibrahim Alfian a disappointment to the Hikayat Raja Pasai the mention of its history, so he was forced to retrieve information from other sources. In fact, never mentions that Snouck HugronjeHikayat Raja Pasai is "a chlidren fairy story." Hugronje scathing statement seems to be a peak fatality Hikayat Raja Pasai as a source of historical information. These data showed that during these writings have been seen in the pragmatic dimension through the study of any historical or philological (Siti Chamamah Soeratno, 2002:36).

d. The existence of Pasai Ocean Journey

Before embracing Islam, Malik al-Salih's real name is Marah Silu or Meurah Shiloh. "Meurah" is a call for people who are exalted honorary degrees, while "Silo" can be interpreted as a glare or sparkle. Marah Silu Tribe are descendants of Imam Four or frequently called Sukee Imuem Peuet, which is the term for descendants of the four Sovereigns / Meurah siblings who originated from the Mon Khmer (Champa), which is the first founders of the kingdoms in Aceh prior to entry and growth of the Islamic religion.

Ancestors who founded the kingdoms of the Hindu / Buddhist in Aceh is among the Maharaja Syahir Po-Uh-La are building the Kingdom of Peureulak (Po-Uh-La) in East Aceh, flag-waving Tanwi Syahir Kingdom Jeumpa (Champa) in Peusangan ( Youth and Sports), Syahir Poly (Pau-Ling) who uphold the banner of Indra in Pidie Same Kingdom, as well as the originator of the establishment of Syahir Nuwi the Ancient Kingdom of Indra in Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar.

In Hikayat Raja Pasai told that Marah Marah Silu whose father and mother is a daughter Gadjah Betung. Marah Silu has a brother named Angry men Sum. After the death of her parents, two brothers was leaving his home and began wandering life. Sum mad then became ruler in the region Bieruen, while Marah Silu open land in the river upstream Peusangan located not far from the mouth of the River Pasai until finally he became the holder of the throne of the Kingdom of Ocean.

Batu Nisan Marah Silu or Sultan Malik al-Salih

As mentioned previously, Marah Silu Malik al-Salih aka Sultan embraced Islam upon persuasion Mamaluk Dynasty envoys from Egypt, namely Shaykh Muhammad Ismail and the Poor. Angry Islamic Silu was reaffirmed in the Hikayat Raja Pasai noting that the Prophet Muhammad has mentioned the name of the Kingdom of Ocean and also to residents in the kingdom Islamicised by one of the Companions of the Prophet, in this case referred to is Sheikh Ismail. With the record of this saga, it is not impossible religious teachings of Islam had entered the territory of Aceh shortly after the Prophet Muhammad died, namely at around the first century Hijra year, or about the 7th century or the 8th year of our Lord. Can be estimated also that the religion of Islam who went to Aceh was taken directly from Mecca (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:58-59).

The data on Islam in Pasai according Hikayat Raja Pasai show that Pasai is the first such place Islamicised. Apparently, such as written in the Hikayat Raja Pasai , Prophet Muhammad (Prophet) reason, to bring Islam to the Ocean / Pasai, is in a face to face in times of sleeping between Marah Silu with the Prophet. Prophet Muhammad also made Marah Silu mensyahdatkan and can read the Qur'an as much as 30 chapters, ie, after the Prophet spat in his mouth Marah Silu. Messenger also makes Marah Silu has berkhitan. Islamization through a direct role Prophet would indicate an essential process for Pasai. In this process Marah Silu stay crowned so that the process of Islamization can be running smoothly (Chamamah, 2002:40).

When Malik al-Salih was crowned as the Sultan of the Kingdom's first Ocean, the coronation ceremony conducted by the Arab forces in which Malik Al Salih was crowned with a royal grace of wearing apparel from Mecca. This means, the coronation done in Arabic, not by way of India. This means again, Malik al-Salih likely to have embraced Islam at the time hailed as the Sultan of the Kingdom of Ocean. After the coronation, all the army commanders and the people immediately respect and worship them by calling for a new sovereign: "Long live Daulat Shah Alam Zilluilahi fil-nature." The reference to the king's honorary degree is also very closely with Arab names.

In the same series of ceremonies, has also established two Big Man, as an adviser to the Sultan, namely Tun Tun Sri Sri Baba Rich and Rich. Aroma of Islam more so when the second man was later given the title of the Great Arab memorable, each with the name of Sayyid Ali Khiatuddin to Tun Sri Rich and Sayid Asmayuddin to Tun Sri Baba Rich (Said, 1963:85).

Sultan Malik al-Salih was married to Princess algae Sari, a descendant of Muhammad Amin Aladdin Sultan bin Abdul Kadi of the Kingdom of perlak. From this marriage, Sultan Malik al-Salih was blessed with two sons, namely Muhammad and Abdullah. Later, Muhammad is believed to lead the Kingdom of Pasai, styled Malikul Zahir Mohammed Sultan (Sultan Malik al Tahir), side by side with his father who still lead the Royal Ocean strapping. The second son of Sultan Malik al-Salih, Abdullah, opted out of a large family and the Royal Ocean Pasai, by establishing self-government in 1295 Barumun Aru Sultanate.

Under the leadership of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, Kingdom Pasai experienced heyday. Ibn Batuta record times achieved by the Kingdom Pasai golden era of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul this. Ibn Batuta noted that the lands in the territory of the Kingdom of Pasai very fertile. Trade and business activities in the kingdom was already well advanced, has been proved by the use of currency, including currency made of gold, as a means of transaction in the economic life of citizens of the Kingdom of Pasai. In addition to establishing partnership with countries from outside the archipelago, trade relations with merchants from the island of Java was so good. In fact, Java merchants get special treatment because they are free of tax. Typically, the traders from Java to exchange rice with black pepper.

Tomb of Sultan Mohammad Zahir Malikul

Ibn Batuta tells, after sailing for 25 days from Barhnakar (now Myanmar's territory), he landed in a place that is very fertile. Ibn Batuta could not cover her admiration so Pasai Kingdom centers around the city. He was so amazed to see a big city surrounded by a wall lovely with a magnificent. Ibn Batuta noted that he had to walk about four miles on horseback from the port which he called Sahra to get to the center of town. Center of the city government was big enough and beautiful and equipped with a tower-dancing which is made of solid woods. At the center of this city, written by Ibn Batuta, there is the abode of the rulers and nobles of the kingdom. The most important building is the Sultan's Palace and Mosque (Ismail, 1997:37).

Inside the fence that surrounds the city, there is the abode of the royal rulers and nobles who protected by the people outside the fence. All commercial life in the city, migrants from the countryside, foreign people, craftsmen, and all other urban activities outside the fence is placed around the center of town. Strangers are often not allowed to settle within a specified distance from the Palace of the Sultan, they sometimes even have to live outside the city.

If the explanation of Ibn Batuta was considered to be true, it can be said that the City Pasai as the government center sultans who ruled in Pasai, in the middle of the area there is a core area which is occupied by the Sultan Palace. The palace has a fence that serves as a boundary that distinguishes the region with the Sultan's Palace in the market area where trade activities and other activities take place.

Still according to the notes of Ibn Batuta, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is the figure of a leader who has a passion to learn high in demanding the Islamic sciences. Batuta also noted, an Islamic study center was built in the royal environment became a place of discussion among scholars and the elite of the kingdom. Ibn Batuta even enter the name of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul as one of the seven kings in the world that has tremendous advantages. Seventh king who has the uncanny ability according to Ibn Batuta among others, Muhammad Sultan Raja Melayu yang judged Malikul Zahir extensive knowledge and profound knowledge, a very forgiving of the Roman King, King of Iraq who were skilled in language, Raja Hindustani very friendly, the King of Yemen that morality, Turkish warrior king, as well as the wise king of Turkistan.

Ibn Batuta impression of the figure of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul was so deep. As king, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is a very pious, generous, humble, and have concern for the poor. Although he had conquered many kingdoms, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul never be jumawa. Sultan, said Batuta, is a leader who is promoting Islamic law. "Personality was very humble. He went to the mosque for Friday prayers on foot. Finished his prayers, the Sultan and the group usually drive across town to see the state of his people, "as Ibn Batuta describes the figure of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul. Humility is the emperor is shown as one group welcomed Ibn Batuta ( the Republika , May 21, 2008).

In its golden ages, the kingdom and the kingdom of Samudera Pasai transformed into a center of international trade. Kingdom of Islam was so crowded ports visited by the traders and merchants from various continents such as Asia, Africa, China, and Europe. Areas where the Kingdom of Ocean and Pasai standing, namely in the area of the Strait of Malacca, it is a very strategic commercial airports. At that time, the Malacca Strait is an area of sea trade routes which often become the location of transit transactions and merchants from all corners of the earth, as from Siam (Thailand), Chinese, Indian, Arabic, up to Persia (Iran).

Position Pasai (Pacem) in the Map Trade in Asia

Besides being a center of trade, the Sultanate of Pasai Ocean is also a central religious development of Islam and emerged as the first government in the archipelago that adheres to Islamic teachings. Glory Ocean and the Ottoman Empire, located in the area Pasai Geudong Ocean, North Aceh, beginning with the unification of a number of small kingdoms in the area of patent, such as Woods and Seumerlang Jreum. Within the 13th century to early 16th century, Pasai is a region's leading producer of spices in the world, with pepper as one of its flagship commodities. Each year, Pasai able to export pepper with a fairly large production. Not only that, Pasai also represent producers of other commodities such as silk, camphor, and gold.

Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul had two sons, namely Malikul Mansur Mahmud and Malikul. When Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul eventually died due to illness, the leadership reins of the kingdom Pasai temporarily handed over Sultan Malik al-Salih, who also led the Royal Ocean, because the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul still a very young age. By Sultan Malik al-Salih, the second grandchild was handed over to the excellent figures so they can properly lead the kingdom in the future. Malikul handed over to Syed Mahmud Ali Ghiatuddin, while educated by Sayid Mansur Malikul Semayamuddin.

When the two princes are growing up and felt ready to lead the government, the Sultan Malik al-Salih had resigned from his pedestal which includes the two kingdoms, namely the Kingdom and the Kingdom of Pasai Ocean. Instead, in accordance with the agreement of Large People, was appointed Malikul Mahmud became the Sultan of the Kingdom of Pasai, while Malikul Mansur as the Sultan of the Kingdom of Ocean. However, the harmony of both the sultan's brother and sister did not last long because of the feud between them. The cause is the act of Sultan Mansur who was fond of a wife of Sultan Mahmud who is none other than his own biological brother. In the end, Sultan Mansur was arrested and expelled from the kingdom until later died in transit. Be the first to master the throne of Sultan Mahmud Malikul Kingdom and the Kingdom of Pasai Ocean digabungkanlah both kingdoms until it became the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.

Since the year 1346, the leadership of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai under the regime of Sultan Mahmud Malikul replaced by his son, named Ahmad Permadala Permala. Once enthroned as ruler of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, he later was awarded an honorary degree by the name of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir. In Hikayat Raja Pasai narrated, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir blessed with five children, three of them males while the remaining two are girls. Three sons of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir each Beraim Father named Tun, Tun Abdul Jalil, and the Tun Abdul-Fadil. While her two daughters are named Tun Tun Takiah Medam Peria and Dara.

Thing that could happen is a shame the way the leadership of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir which in turn is attached to the image as a bad leader. According to the Hikayat Raja Pasai , The Emperor was put on the second estrus own daughter, namely Medan Tun Tun Takiah Peria and Dara. The unreasonable attitude of the Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir is of course raises the wrath of many parties, including Tun Beraim Father who is none other than the eldest son of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir.

Tun Beraim Father desperately to protect his sisters from the savagery of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir with a whisk them away for safekeeping somewhere. Feeling challenged by his own son, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir get mad and then ordered his bodyguard to kill Tun Beraim Father. Prince should be the crown prince has finally died after consuming poison given emissary of his father (Jones [ed.], 1999:35-56). Not long later, the two sisters were Tun Beraim Father followed his brother to take the same poison.

Malignancy Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir has not stopped there. The Emperor re-acting savage when she heard the news that there was a princess of the Majapahit Kingdom, Radin Galuh clang, fall in love with the second son of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir, the Tun Abdul Jalil. Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir felt humiliated because he himself also put the heart at the beauty of the daughter of the King of Majapahit. So then, as stipulated in the Hikayat Raja Pasai, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir returned to give mandate to eliminate his subordinates to Tun Abdul Jalil and when the plan was successful, Tun Abdul Jalil's body sunk into the sea. Meanwhile, for the sake of love that is not unbearable, Radin was determined to go to the clink Galuh Pasai with his bodyguards to meet Tun Abdul Jalil.

Arriving at Pasai, the group of Majapahit was learned that the idol of the heart Radin Galuh clang already dead, murdered by his own father. The Princess did not withstand the power of grief and then immersed himself into the sea where the body was immersed Tun Abdul Jalil earlier. Time Radin entourage bodyguards who accompany the clang Galuh right back into Java and reports to the King of Majapahit about these tragic events.

The King of course heard the wrath of her daughter's death and the barbarity of Sultan Pasai it, and then immediately commissioned to the army preparing to attack the kingdom of Majapahit to Pasai. Although time to provide resistance, the war fleet of the Majapahit Kingdom was more superior and succeeded in occupying Pasai. Because the more urgency, Sultan Az-Zahir Ahmad Malik fled to a place called Expecting, which is located about fifteen days journey from Pasai Affairs.

Meanwhile, after the resounding victory by conquering Pasai, Majapahit army began preparing to return to Java after previously taking booty and prisoners of war from Pasai. On the way to Java, the Majapahit soldiers, the army first stopped at Palembang and Jambi to conquer these countries, as well as bringing more and more loot. Thus the story of the conquest by the Majapahit kingdom against kingdom Pasai as recounted in the book Hikayat Raja Pasai (Jones [ed.], 1999:57-65).

In the lineage of the ruler who led the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, there are a sovereign women who had reigned in that great kingdom. Sultanah Nahrasiyah (Nahrisyyah) Malikul Zahir's throne from 1420 until 1428, or approximately eight years. Sultanah Nahrasiyah has called Ariya Bakooy adviser with the title of Maharaja Bakooy Ahmad Permala. Ariya Bakooy is actually a controversial figure. He had warned the clergy not to marry his own daughter but the warning was opposed. In fact, Ariya Bakooy then instead killed 40 scholars. Ariya Bakooy finally killed at the hands of Malik surnamed Musthofa Pocut Cindan Natural Node, which is none other than the husband Sultanah Nahrasiyah, with the help of Sultan Mahmud Shah Johan Alaiddin from the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam (1409-1465).

Sultanah Nahrasiyah is a high-minded Muslim women. This is evidenced by a very special tomb decoration. On tombstone, written in Arabic characters translated excerpt reads: "This is the grave of a holy woman who lit Dear queen, the deceased are forgiven their sins, Nahrasiyah, daughter of Sultan Zainal Abidin, the son of Sultan Ahmad, son of Sultan Muhammad, son of Sultan Salih Mailkus. To them, poured out in mercy and forgiveness for his sins. Died with the grace of God on Monday, 17 Zulhijjah 832. "(Pocut Haslinda Hamid Azwar, , 2009).

Mausoleum Complex Renovation Sultanah Nahrasiyah (Nahrisyyah)

e. Destruction and Survival of Civilization Pasai Ocean

Triumph of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai begin to experience threats of greatest civilizations in Java that time, ie from the Majapahit kingdom with Gadjah Mada as the most legendary mahapatihnya. Gadjah Mada was appointed as governor in KAHURIPAN in the period 1319-1321 AD by the King of Majapahit who was then occupied by Jayanegara. In 1331, Gadjah Mada University was promoted to mahapati when Majapahit led by Queen Tribuana Tunggadewi. When the inauguration of Gadjah Mada became mahapati Majapahit out what he said is called Palapa Oath, namely that the Gadjah Mada University will not enjoy the fruits palapa before the entire archipelago under the authority of the Kingdom of Majapahit.

Gadjah Mada mahapati seemed a little disturbed to hear about the greatness of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai across the ocean there. Concerned about the rapid progress of the Majapahit Empire Pasai Ocean. Therefore, Gadjah Mada University and then prepare the plan of attack to conquer the Majapahit Pasai Ocean. The rumors about military attacks Majapahit, who embraced the Hindu Siva, to the Islamic kingdom of Samudera Pasai Santer heard among the people in Aceh. Expedition Pamalayu war fleet under the command of the Majapahit Kingdom, Gadjah Mada mahapati started its action in 1350 with several phases.

Initial attack on the border of Majapahit perlak have failed because the location was heavily guarded by the army of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. However, Gadjah Mada University did not cancel its attacks. He retreated to the sea and looking for a place field on the east coast that is not maintained. Elephant River, Gadjah Mada University in landing his troops and established a fortress on a hill, which, until now known as the Mount or the Mount of Gadjah Mada Meutan (Muljana, 2005:140).

Furthermore, Gadjah Mada running attack two major strategies, namely from the majors and major inland sea. The attack was launched against the coast by sea in Lhokseumawe and Jambu Air. While the raid conducted by road via Paya Gajah that lies between perlak and Pedawa. Attack of the land is apparently a failure due to blocked by the army of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. While the attacks carried out by sea it can reach the palace.

Majapahit Empire territories, including the Ocean Pasai

Apart from reasons of political factors, to the Ocean Pasai Majapahit attack also triggered by a factor of economic interests. Trade progress and prosperity of the people Pasai Ocean Sultanate has made Gadjah Mada eager to triumph over it. Expansion of Majapahit in order to master Pasai Ocean region have been carried out repeatedly and the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai still able to survive before finally slowly began to erode as strengthening the influence of Majapahit in the Straits of Malacca.

Until the late 16th century, Ocean Pasai still able to maintain its role as an airport that has a foreign trade activities. The historians who shed his interest in economic development Pasai noted that once occupied a position as a center of international trade activities in the archipelago since the role of Kedah had broken off (Said, 1963:125).

But then, a role previously Pasai extremely important in trade flows in Southeast Asia and the world experienced a slump with the advent of commercial airports in Peninsular Malays of Malacca (Ismail, 1997:24). Malacca Airport soon to be excellent in the field of trade and began to shift the position Pasai. Not long after Malacca was built, the city in a short time immediately flooded with foreigners-resident foreigners from Java.

Obtained due to rapid advancement of Malacca, the position and role of Pasai more and more cornered, almost all activities perniagaannya become loose and eventually broke completely in the hands of Malacca since 1450. Moreover, plus the arrival of Portuguese, who controlled trade in the Peninsula ambitious Malays. The Portuguese who in 1521 succeeded in occupying the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (Rusdi Sufi, 2004:57)

Not only that, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai increasingly weak as in Aceh stands one who started his empire again became a great civilization and progress. The new government that is the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam which was founded by Sultan Ali Shah Mughayat. Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam itself built on the ruins of the kingdoms that ever existed in Aceh on the pre-Islamic, like the Ancient Kingdom of Indra, Indra Purwa kingdom, the kingdom of Indra Patra, and the Kingdom Indrapura. In 1524, the Kingdom of Aceh under the leadership of Sultan Ali Shah attacked the Sultanate Mughayat Pasai Ocean. Consequently, the prestige of the greatness of the kingdom of Samudera Pasai The overcast before it actually collapsed. Since then, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai under the control of the power of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam.

Traces of the civilization heritage of the Sultanate of Pasai Ocean have been found, in 1913 and 1915 by a Dutch scientist named JJ de Vink, who initially entered into inventory at the former Ocean Pasai heritage. Subsequently, in 1937 restoration efforts have been made on some grave sultans Pasai Ocean by the Dutch East Indies colonial government. Then, in 1972, 1973, and in 1976 the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai relics found in Ocean Geudong District, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, have been inventoried by the Director General of Culture, Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia.

Latest developments, in the year 2009 have been found several relics related to the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. In March 2009, the Islamic Cultural History Research Team announced that they have discovered the tomb of Al Wazir Al ritually pure, who served as Prime Minister of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. The tombs are located in the village of Ara Teupin, Ocean District, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province.

Al Wazir Al Afdal known to have served as prime minister during the reign of the last regime Pasai Ocean, Sultan Zain Al-Abidin, or also commonly known by the name of Sultan Zainal Abidin, who ruled for two terms, ie in the period 1477-1500 and 1513-1524 . From the findings obtained information that al-Wazir al ritually pure died December 7 months Zulkaedah year or 1518 AD 923 H In the same year, Sultan Zainal Abidin, also died. At the cemetery headstone Al Wazir Al ritually pure, there is a poem that describes the kezuhudan that this world is mortal, which are like a nest of spiders knit. The same poem written on the tomb of Sultan Malik al-Salih that expresses the sinking of civilization Ocean Pasai ( , March 25, 2009).

On occasion the same time, the Islamic Cultural History Research Team also claimed to have found a stamp or seal of an estimated 683 years old. Royal stamp of ostensibly owned by Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, the second sultan Pasai Ocean, was found not far from the tomb of Abdullah ibn Muhammad, in the village of Kuta Krueng, Ocean District, North Aceh district. Abdullah ibn Muhammad (d. 816 H/1414 M) itself is one of the descendants of the Abbasid caliph, Al-Mustansir Billah, who is called sadr al Akabir (princes rulers) in the Sultanate of Pasai Ocean at that time.

Seals are found to have broken at the hilt have size 2 × 1 inch, and apparently made of similar materials of animal horns. From the location of the discovery in Kuta Krueng, this stamp is estimated to have been used until the reign of the last leader of Pasai Ocean, Sultan Zainal Abidin ( , March 17, 2009).

Subsequently, in June 2009, a team of researchers from the Foundation waqaf Nurul Islam (YWNI) Lhokseumawe announced that they have found the tomb believed to be the last wake of King Kanayan place, a warlord in the reign of Sultan Zain Al-Abidin. Tomb of King Kanayan found in the village of Meunasah Ujoung Blang Me, Ocean District, North Aceh district. Based on the research, it is known that the King Kanayan died on Friday, December 3 Ramadhan 1468 H or 872 AD. Thus, King Kanayan has lived in the reign of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai some regime and died at the time of Sultan Zainal Abidin.

Besides the tomb of King Kanayan, also found other tombs. In fact, the research team predict there are still other gravestones disappear into the ground at the tomb complex which is located not far from the east bank of the River Pasai it. The new tombs found in the inventory of sites not yet recorded in the history of the Cultural Office ( , June 20, 2009).

Finally, in August 2009, Research Institute of Islamic History (LePSI) Lhokseumawe revealed that they were reviewing the manuscript letters of Sultan Zainal Abidin, died in 923 Hijri or 1518 AD. The letter was addressed to Kapitan Moran representatives acting on behalf of the Portuguese king in India. Photography script can be witnessed in the State Museum of Aceh, while the original manuscripts are stored in Lisbon, Portugal.

The script provides a lot of historical information about the happenings at the beginning of Pasai Ocean-16th century, especially the last condition experienced by the first Islamic kingdom in Southeast Asia is, after the Portuguese had control of Malacca in 1511 AD. Manuscripts in Arabic letters also indicate the names of some country or kingdom which had close relations with Pasai Ocean so that can know the original spelling of the names of countries or kingdoms, among others Nergeri Fariyaman (Pariaman) and Mulaqat (Malacca) ( www.waspadaonline. com, August 21, 2009).

2. Genealogy of the Kings

Here are the names of the sultan / Sultanah known to have led the Sultanate Ocean Pasai:

  1. Sultan Malik al-Salih (1267-1297)
  2. Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul
  3. Sultan Mahmud Malikul
  4. Sultan Mansur Malikul
  5. Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir (1346-1383)
  6. Zain Al-Abidin Sultan Malik Az-Zahir (1383-1405)
  7. Sultanah Nahrasiyah or Sultanah Nahrisyyah (1420-1428)
  8. Sultan Sallah Ad-Din (1402)
  9. Sultan Abu Zayd Malik Az-Zahir 1455)
  10. Sultan Mahmud Malik Az-Zahir (1455-1477)
  11. Sultan Zain Al-Abidin (1477-1500)
  12. Sultan Abdullah Malik Az-Zahir (1501-1513)
  13. Sultan Zain Al-Abidin (1513-1524)

Lineage Sultan / Sultanah Sultanate of Samudera Pasai According Hikayat Raja Pasai.

Sultan Malik al-Salih lead the Sultanate Ocean, while his son, Sultan Mohammad Zahir is the ruler of Sultanate Malikul Pasai. When Sultan Mohammad Zahir Malikul died, the government held by the Sultan of the Sultanate of Pasai Malik Al-Salih in the meantime while waiting for the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, namely Malikul and Malikul Mansur Mahmud, growing up. After the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul are considered able to be a leader, Sultan Malik al-Salih to resign from the sultan of the kingdom which he led the second.

Furthermore, Sultan Malik Al Salih handed the reins of government to these two grandchildren, each of the Sultanate of Pasai to Malikul Mahmud and Sultan Mansur Ocean to Malikul. The third administration period sultans, namely Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, Malikul Sultan Mahmud, and Sultan Mansur Malikul, deliberately not mentioned because there is still some awkwardness about it, including those listed in the Hikayat Raja Pasai.

Kesimpang-siuran about the period of reign of each sultan / Sultanah become an obstacle in itself, and that's why over the years included in the list above is an interpretation of some of the information found. Similarly, with the mention of the name or title of each sultan / Sultanah that it found so many versions. In addition, the incompleteness of information about anyone sultan / Sultanah who had ruled the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai a coherent sequence and also cause other problems because it is not necessarily what is written in the genealogy of the above record of all rulers who have reigned in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.

3. Regional Powers

During the period of the 14th century, the name of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai already very famous and influential and has a vast territory. Very powerful war fleet support for the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai expanded its powers, both with the aim of mastering and other kingdoms occupied neither by a mission to spread Islam. Ottoman empire in its heyday Pasai Ocean is located in an area flanked by two large rivers on the North Coast of Aceh, namely Peusangan River and River Pasai. Sultanate's territory also includes Pasai Ocean Ocean Geudong (North Aceh), Meulaboh, Bireuen, and Woods Jreum and Seumerlang (perlak).

Pasai Ocean territories

Meanwhile, some are embracing the notion that the Sultanate of Pasai Ocean covers a wider area to the south, that is up to the mouth of the River Jambu Ayer (Ismail, 1997:7). Clearly, the vast territory surrounding the Sultanate of Pasai Ocean along the river flow upstream upstream-originating deep in the interior of the Gayo Highlands, now in the administrative region of Central Aceh District, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Sultanate of Samudera Pasai also successfully expanded its territory to the outside of Aceh. Some areas outside the country conquered the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai include Minangkabau, Palembang, Jambi, Patani, Malacca, even up to several kingdoms in the coastal areas in Java (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:61).

4. Governance System

Composition of the people who became citizens of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai show properties in layers. According Ayatrohaedi, the layer consists of the Emperor and the Great Men of the kingdom on the upper layer until the slave on the bottom layer (Ayatrohaedi, 1992). The layers of bureaucracy groups is apparent and the group Big People, prime ministers, ministers, soldiers, officers, and other royal notables.

The existence of people who are engaged in commerce, for example, people who trade, the sail, one week, captain, and others. Although the number of population Arabs who resided in Pasai not as many people from India, but among the Arab people are very influential in the course of the royal government, even though the policy of the Sultan Pasai. This situation is seen since the early establishment of the Sultanate of Pasai and lasts a long time until the name was changed to the Sultanate kingdom Pasai Ocean.

In the reign of Sultan Malik al-Salih as the first ruler of the Sultanate Pasai, there are a number of Great People in the country, among others, Tun Tun Sri Baba Rich and Rich. The names that clearly indicate their position, called the Great People. This is in accordance with the mention of the Big Men of the kingdoms of the Peninsula Malays and the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam as the Rich (Ismail, 1997:39).

Both Big Man who took part in the Sultanate of controlling running of the government's own Pasai later given the title and Sayid Sayid Ali Ghitauddin Asmayuddin, as mentioned earlier in the Islamic Marah Silu or Sultan Malik al-Salih. In the saga illustrated clearly that Great Men are mentioned as prime minister, one for the Sultanate of Pasai and another for the Sultanate of Samudera. The position of those who are very important there going on since the regime of Sultan Malik al-Salih to the administration and the grandson of Malikul Malikul Mahmud Mansur.

One of which Shows Presence Pasai Manuscript

In the second grandson of Sultan Malik al-Salih was in power in each kingdom, there was dispute between the two, ie when Malikul Mansur perform indecent acts against one of his wives Malikul Mahmud. Knowing the despicable actions of his brother, Sultan Mahmud Malikul could say that if he does not respect Asmayuddin Sayid, who is an advisor in the Sultanate of Sultan Mansur Malikul Ocean, undoubtedly Malikul Sultan Mahmud had already killed his own brother on the despicable acts that are not unforgivable. This fragment is sufficient to prove that how strong the influence of the Great People in the wheels of government take control of the kingdom, even to the level of personal and psychological impact on the Sultan.

In the next era of leadership, namely, under the regime of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir (1346-1383), Sultanate of Samudera Pasai government was escorted by four prime ministers, each named Tulus Great Tailor Sukara, Baba Mentuha, Solomon Dendang Water, and Tun Shah Alam City (Jones [ed.], 1999:36). Still the same as in previous periods, the fourth prime minister is performing its function as an advisor to the Sultan and influence the policy of the kingdom despite the final decision still remains in the hands of the Sultan of Pasai Ocean. Social and political lives of citizens of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai strongly colored by elements of the Islamic religion and culture. His government is theocracy (based on Islamic teachings) and the majority of its people embraced Islam.

(Iswara NR/Ker/01/10-2009)


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